Radiation Monitoring Network
A legal framework of the radiation protection system in the Czech Republic, including the Monitoring Radiation Situation System on its territory, is created by Law No. 263/2016 Coll., the Atomic Act and the associated executive regulations (see www.sujb.cz). The radiation situation on a territory of the Czech Republic is primarily monitored by the Radiation Monitoring Network (RMN). Its control comes under a competence of the State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS). In addition to SONS, i.e. its Regional Centers (RC), the National Radiation Protection Institute (NRPI) and the holders of licence for operation of nuclear installations, there are the departments of the Ministry of Finance (MF), the Ministry of Defence (MD), Ministry of the Interior (MI), the Ministry of Agriculture (MA) and the Ministry of the Environment (ME), which take part in RMN activities. Details of RMN purpose and organization are regulated by Decree No. 360/2016 Coll., on Radiation Situation Monitoring. Further requirements to ensure Radiation Situation Monitoring are fixed by Decree 359/2016 Coll. on Details to Ensure Radiation Emergency Management and by the authorized monitoring programmes. The terms of monitoring programmes, which among other things set the scope of monitoring of nuclear facilities surroundings provided by the holders of licence for operation of these installations, are determined by Decree No. 422/2016 on Radiation Protection and Security of Radionuclide Source.
RMS operates in two modes, in so called normal monitoring aimed at a monitoring under a normal radiation situation and emergency monitoring, which takes place under an accidental expositional situation. Nowdays the radiation situation monitoring on a territory of the Czech Republic is performed by these monitoring networks:
- the Early Warning Network formed by 169 measurement sites, from them: 71 measuring sites located in RC SONS workplaces (8 measurement sites), NRPI (1 measurement site), the Czech Hydro–Meteorological Institute (38 measurement sites), the CR Fire-Rescue Brigades (7 measurement sites), the CR Army (17 measurement sites). In the surroundings of Dukovany and Temelin Nuclear Power Stations (NPS) the territorial Early Warning Network is added by teledosimetric systems (TDS), 98 measurement sites in total. In Temelin NPS there are 24 measurement sites on the area boundary and 23 measurement sites in the settlement units in the vicinity. In Dukovany NPS there are 27 measurement sites on the area boundary and 24 measurement sites in the settlement units in the vicinity;
- the TLD Territorial Network formed by a total of 180 measurement sites (127 outside, 53 in buildings) placed on the CR territory operated by NRPI and RC SONS;
- the TLD Local Network with a total of 26 measurement sites in Dukovany NPS vicinity (15 measurement sites) and in Temelin NPS one (11 measurement sites) operated by NRPI and relevant RC SONS;
- the TLD Local Network with a total of 97 measurement sites in Dukovany NPS vicinity (55 measurement sites) and in Temelin NPS one (42 measurement sites) operated by NPS Laboratories of Radiation Monitoring of the Surroundings;
- the Network for Internal Exposition comprised of the monitoring seats, where is measured a content of representative radionuclides in the environment, food chain or human body;
- the Territorial Network of Environmental Sampling comprised of 10 measurement sites of air contamination operated by RC SONS, NRPI and CHMI;
- the Local Network of Environmental Sampling with 13 measurement sites in total of air contamination operated by Dukovany (6 measurement sites) and Temelin (7 measurement sites) NPS Laboratories of Radiation Monitoring of the Surroundings;
- the Territorial Network of Environmental Sampling comprised of 12 laboratories (RC SONS, NRPI, EDU and ETE of Radiation Monitoring of the Surroundings, T.G. Masaryk Institute of Water Resources, the National Veterinary Institute), which are equipped for quality and quantitative analyses of radionuclide content in samples of the environment (e.g. in aerosols, fallout, foodstuff, drinking water, feeds etc.). Alpha, beta, gamma spectrometry methods and other radiometric ones, as well as methods of radiochemical analysis (according to the laboratory equipment);
- RMN significant component is the Network of Monitoring Routes provided by mobile groups (NRPI, RC SONS, departments of the Ministry of the Interior: the General Directorate of the Fire-Rescue Brigades and the Police of the Czech Republic, the Finance Ministry - the General Directorate of Customs Duties, the Ministry of Defence and the holders of licence for operation of EDU and ETEnuclear installations.